Scientific References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2021). Census of Population and Housing: Cultural diversity data summary, 2021. Available at diversity-census/2021/Cultural%20diversity%20data%20summary.xlsx

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2023). Australia’s Kava Pilot. Available at Pilot#:~:text=On%2011%20October%202019%2C%20Australia,and%20across%20the%20Pacific%20 region

Kuchta, K., Schmidt, M., & Nahrstedt, A. (2015). German Kava Ban Lifted by Court: The Alleged Hepatotoxicity of Kava (Piper methysticum) as a Case of Ill-Defined Herbal Drug Identity, Lacking Quality Control, and Misguided Regulatory Politics. Planta Medica, 81(18): 1647-1653. Available at https://doi. org/10.1055/s-0035-1558295

Lebot, Vincent (2023). Interview in Port Vila.

Minh, T. N., Van, T. M., Khanh, T. D., & Xuan, T. D. (2022). Isolation and Identification of Constituents Exhibiting Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antihyperuricemia Activities in Piper methysticum Root. Foods, 11(23), 3889.

Bian T, Corral P, Wang Y, Botello J, Kingston R, Daniels T, Salloum RG, Johnston E, Huo Z, Lu J, Liu AC, Xing C. Kava as a Clinical Nutrient: Promises and Challenges. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 5;12(10):3044. doi: 10.3390/nu12103044. PMID: 33027883; PMCID: PMC7600512.

Kava (Kavalactones) Factsheet. Available at

O'Connor E, Mündel T, Barnes MJ. Nutritional Compounds to Improve Post-Exercise Recovery. Nutrients. 2022 Nov 29;14(23):5069. doi: 10.3390/nu14235069. PMID: 36501099; PMCID: PMC9736198.

Soares RB, Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Oliveira NG. An Updated Review on the Psychoactive, Toxic and Anticancer Properties of Kava. J Clin Med. 2022 Jul 12;11(14):4039. doi: 10.3390/jcm11144039. PMID: 35887801; PMCID: PMC9315573.

Wang Y, Su C, Zhang B, Niu Y, Ren R, Zhao X, Yang L, Zhang W, Ma X. Biological Activity, Hepatotoxicity, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Kavalactones and Flavokavins, the Two Main Bioactive Components in Kava (Piper methysticum). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 Aug 20;2021:6851798. doi: 10.1155/2021/6851798. PMID: 34471418; PMCID: PMC8405297.

Wang Y, Narayanapillai SC, Tessier KM, Strayer LG, Upadhyaya P, Hu Q, Kingston R, Salloum RG, Lu J, Hecht SS, Hatsukami DK, Fujioka N, Xing C. The Impact of One-week Dietary Supplementation with Kava on Biomarkers of Tobacco Use and Nitrosamine-based Carcinogenesis Risk among Active Smokers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 May;13(5):483-492. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0501. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32102948; PMCID: PMC7461349.

Freeman B, Mamallapalli J, Bian T, Ballas K, Lynch A, Scala A, Huo Z, Fredenburg KM, Bruijnzeel AW, Baglole CJ, Lu J, Salloum RG, Malaty J, Xing C. Opportunities and Challenges of Kava in Lung Cancer Prevention. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 May 31;24(11):9539. doi: 10.3390/ijms24119539. PMID: 37298489; PMCID: PMC10253622.

Tang Y, Fields C. A UHPLC-UV Method Development and Validation for Determining Kavalactones and Flavokavains in Piper methysticum (Kava). Molecules. 2019 Mar 30;24(7):1245. doi: 10.3390/molecules24071245. PMID: 30934989; PMCID: PMC6479543.

Pantano F, Tittarelli R, Mannocchi G, Zaami S, Ricci S, Giorgetti R, Terranova D, Busardò FP, Marinelli E. Hepatotoxicity Induced by "the 3Ks": Kava, Kratom and Khat. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Apr 16;17(4):580. doi: 10.3390/ijms17040580. PMID: 27092496; PMCID: PMC4849036.

Savage, K.M., Stough, C.K., Byrne, G.J. et al. Kava for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (K-GAD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 16, 493 (2015).

Sarris J, Byrne GJ, Bousman CA, et al. Kava for generalised anxiety disorder: A 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;54(3):288-297.

Sarris J, LaPorte E, Schweitzer I. Kava: A Comprehensive Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Psychopharmacology. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2011;45(1):27-35. doi:10.3109/00048674.2010.522554

Robinson V, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Piper Methysticum Leaf/Root/Stem Extract and Piper Methysticum Root Extract. International Journal of Toxicology. 2009;28(6_suppl):175S-188S. doi:10.1177/1091581809350934

Ramzan I, Tran VH. Chemistry of kava and kavalactones. In:Kava: From Ethnology to Pharmacology. Boca Raton, FL: CRCPress; 2004:78-103.

Cawte J. Parameters of kava used as a challenge to alcohol. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1986 Mar;20(1):70-6. doi: 10.3109/00048678609158867. PMID: 3460587.

Singh YN. Kava: an overview. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992 Aug;37(1):13-45. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(92)90003-a. PMID: 1453702.

Ooi SL, Henderson P, Pak SC. Kava for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Review of Current Evidence. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Aug;24(8):770-780. doi: 10.1089/acm.2018.0001. Epub 2018 Apr 11. PMID: 29641222.

Teschke R. Kava hepatotoxicity--a clinical review. Ann Hepatol. 2010 Jul-Sep;9(3):251-65. PMID: 20720265.

Bilia AR, Gallon S, Vincieri FF. Kava-kava and anxiety: growing knowledge about the efficacy and safety. Life Sci. 2002 Apr 19;70(22):2581-97. doi: 10.1016/s0024-3205(02)01555-2. PMID: 12269386.

Ali R, Tariq S, Kareem O, Fayaz F, Aziz T, Meenu, Pottoo FH, Siddiqui N. Nutraceuticals for Sleep Disorders. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2021 Sep 14;24(10):1583-1592. doi: 10.2174/1386207324666210121111446. PMID: 33475068.

Teschke R, Gaus W, Loew D. Kava extracts: safety and risks including rare hepatotoxicity. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(5):440-6. doi: 10.1078/0944-7113-00314. PMID: 12834011.

White CM. The Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Adverse Events Associated With Kava. J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;58(11):1396-1405. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1263. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29791008.

Sarris J, Kavanagh DJ. Kava and St. John's Wort: current evidence for use in mood and anxiety disorders. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):827-36. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0066. PMID: 19614563.

Goldin D, Salani D. Calm Down With Kava: What Clinicians Need to Know. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2022 Dec;60(12):17-24. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20220523-02. Epub 2022 Jun 30. PMID: 35763396.

LaPorte E, Sarris J, Stough C, Scholey A. Neurocognitive effects of kava (Piper methysticum): a systematic review. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011 Mar;26(2):102-11. doi: 10.1002/hup.1180. Epub 2011 Mar 16. PMID: 21437989.

Gounder R. Kava consumption and its health effects. Pac Health Dialog. 2006 Sep;13(2):131-5. PMID: 18181402.

Aporosa AS, Atkins M, Brunton R. Kava drinking in traditional settings: Towards understanding effects on cognitive function. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2020 Mar;35(2):e2725. doi: 10.1002/hup.2725. Epub 2020 Feb 16. PMID: 32064691.

Schulze J, Raasch W, Siegers CP. Toxicity of kava pyrones, drug safety and precautions--a case study. Phytomedicine. 2003;10 Suppl 4:68-73. doi: 10.1078/1433-187x-00300. PMID: 12807347.

Denham A, McIntyre M, Whitehouse J. Kava--the unfolding story: report on a work-in-progress. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):237-63. doi: 10.1089/10755530260127943. PMID: 12165183.

Spungen HH, Mody K, Micetic B, Wade C, Kang AM. Neonatal and Maternal Ichthyosiform Dermopathy in Association with Kava Use during Pregnancy. J Med Toxicol. 2024 Jun 5. doi: 10.1007/s13181-024-01016-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38839731.

Aijaz SM, Ruan Z, Leija C, Lytwak LA, Waddell S, Kuszak AJ, Wise SA, Sreenivasan U. Development of Certified Reference Material Solutions for Phytochemicals in Ginger and Kava. J AOAC Int. 2024 Mar 26:qsae025. doi: 10.1093/jaoacint/qsae025. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38530970.

Zhao M, Jiang X, Fang J, Lin Y, Li Y, Pei R, Ye P, Lu Y, Jiang L. The kava chalcone flavokawain B exerts inhibitory activity and synergizes with BCL-2 inhibition in malignant B-cell lymphoma. Phytomedicine. 2023 Nov;120:155074. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2023.155074. Epub 2023 Sep 7. PMID: 37716033.

Minh TN, Van TM, Khanh TD, Xuan TD. Isolation and Identification of Constituents Exhibiting Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antihyperuricemia Activities in Piper methysticum Root. Foods. 2022 Dec 1;11(23):3889. doi: 10.3390/foods11233889. PMID: 36496697; PMCID: PMC9739624.

Kanumuri SRR, Mamallapalli J, Nelson R, McCurdy CR, Mathews CA, Xing C, Sharma A. Clinical pharmacokinetics of kavalactones after oral dosing of standardized kava extract in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Oct 28;297:115514. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2022.115514. Epub 2022 Jun 28. PMID: 35777607; PMCID: PMC9634089.

Soares RB, Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Oliveira NG. An Updated Review on the Psychoactive, Toxic and Anticancer Properties of Kava. J Clin Med. 2022 Jul 12;11(14):4039. doi: 10.3390/jcm11144039. PMID: 35887801; PMCID: PMC9315573.

Tzeng YM, Lee MJ. Neuroprotective properties of kavalactones. Neural Regen Res. 2015 Jun;10(6):875-7. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.158335. PMID: 26199594; PMCID: PMC4498339.

Abu N, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Akhtar MN, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, Alitheen NB. The flavokawains: uprising medicinal chalcones. Cancer Cell Int. 2013 Oct 22;13(1):102. doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-13-102. PMID: 24148263; PMCID: PMC4015927.

Abu, N., Ho, W.Y., Yeap, S.K. et al. The flavokawains: uprising medicinal chalcones. Cancer Cell Int 13, 102 (2013).